Zweierlei.

Erstens:

„Irgendjemand“ ™ hatte intern vor ewigkeiten mal vorgeschlagen, einen kleinen Lebenslauf unseres Ludus zu erstellen.

Wenn ich die Mail irgendwann mal wiederfinde, kann ich euch dann auch sagen, wer „schuld“ ist.

Weil: Jetzt isse da !
Unsere Ludus-Chronik

Und das andere ist eine Randnotiz: Corona-bedingt gint es zur Zeit kein Training, aber das werden sich schon alle gedacht haben.
Ich persönlich gehe davon aus, daß das Training für 2020 gelaufen ist.

Seitenumbau

Salvete

Wir haben mal wieder an der Seite rumgeschraubt. Daraus ergaben sich zwei änderungen:

1) Der englischsprachige Inhalt ist jetzt aus dem Menü zu erreichen

2) Die Jährlichen Galerie-Zusammenfassungen sind nicht mehr als Untermenüs eingebunden. Aber noch vorhanden, und über die Galerieseite zu erreichen. Oder auch über die alten Direkt-Links.

Bleibt gesund

Polsterhaubenübersicht

Salvete Amici,

im letzten Jahr kam bei uns das Thema der Polsterhauben auf und konnte nicht zufriedenstellend beantwortet werden. Also hat sich unser Rechercheteam daran gemacht, eine Übersicht zu erstellen. Hier findet Ihr unsere Ergebnisse (results). Nun wissen wir, welche Polsterformen nachweislich getragen wurden. Zu den Wirkungen gibt es aber ein anderes Projekt. :-)

Grüße euer Pullus

Neue Übersicht – Armaturenübersicht

Salvete Amici,

 

bei der Durchsicht unserer Arbeiten hat eine nette Dame moniert, dass es keine Basiserklärungen z.B. zu den Armaturen bei uns gibt. Der Hinweis, dass die Selbstvorstellungen der Gladiatoren, eine Armaturenbeschreibung enthalten wurde, zu Recht, als schwierig zu finden und optimierungswürdig bezeichnet. Also hat sich unser Recherchechef mit unserem neusten Recherchezugang zusammengesetzt und die Armaturen mal skizziert.
Das Ergebnis seht ihr in der Übersicht.

Natürlich wird die englische Übersetzung bald folgen.

Valete euer Pullus

Neuer Bereich – „English section“

Salvete Amici, (English below)

das Rechercheteam hat wieder zugeschlagen und alle bisherigen Arbeiten ins Englische übertragen. Wenn ihr also Freunde habt, die unsere Artikel schon immer lesen wollten aber der deutschen Sprache noch weniger mächtig sind als wir, dann werdet ihr nun hier fündig: http://www.gladiatorenschule-berlin.de/?page_id=3723

Salvete Amici,

The research team has struck again and translated all our previous work into English. So if you have friends who have always wanted to read our articles but are even less proficient in the German language than we are, you will find what you are looking for here:
http://www.gladiatorenschule-berlin.de/?page_id=3723

Valete euer Pullus

Craticula – Roman cooking rack

Our Roman cooking rack

 

In the Neapolitan National Museum there is the Roman cooking place or „cooker“, which was found in Pompeii.

Our blacksmith of confidence Domi from DKS-Metall has worked on it. The strong corrosion caused by the volcanic ash was of course not reproduced.

 

 

The dimensions correspond approximately to the original. (600x450x360) and a weight of nearly 20kg. The whole construction was riveted according to the original and not welded.

 

 

In Pompeii the Craticula stood on a brick cooker, so it was not meant for camp life. A protective transport box was formed around the Craticula, which could function as a substructure in use. So it is as close as possible to the original. (cf. fig. 4).

Our Craticula has 2 rings, according to the finding. Paterae or other vessels can be put into these rings. The rings have removable inserts to hold different caccabi (pots). In contrast to the picture of the find, we have used six grate bars to either grill or to put down a large kettle/pan.

 

 

We had the grill bars bent over the edge, similar to the deepeeka replica. This differs from the Neapolitan find but offers the possibility to store the larger number of grill bars in cold storage. Here, practicability went before discovery.
Now we are waiting for a test opportunity to write a report. Wish us all luck.

 

 

Stay healthy – yours Gladiatores berolinenses

armour belt of the gladiators

Salvete Amici,

According to most depictions gladiator belts were about 8-12cm wide [1], often metal-reinforced leather belts (Balteus/Cingulum) [2]. Figure one shows the bronze fittings of a leather belt from the 4th century BC. The holes all around the belt show how it was fastened to the leather with simple yarn. These armour belts can be traced back to the Iron Age and were adopted by the Romans in the course of the gladiation of their subjugated enemies.
Fig.1. belt remnant Samnite 4th century BC

In comparison, the Roman military belt, here after finding in Tekija(Serbia). Which was to influence the belt more and more during the gladiation. (spoiler)
Fig.2 Cingulum Militare [2]

The smooth leather design can also be seen in many pictures. See Fig. 3-5 for an example.

Fig. 3 Fresco Retiarius
Fig. 4 Vase Belgram Hoplomachus
Fig. 5 Fresco Pompei Thraex

Here, smooth, barely decorated belts with the same reinforcing bronze band are shown.

In figures six and seven, one can see decorated or misted-up bronze bands on carrying leather or misted-up leather.

Fig. 7 Fresco Pompei Hoplomachus

 

Fig. 6 Mosaic Kourion Thraex

I would like to call the openwork decoration the third type of construction. This could be created by several individual metal plates, similar to the military model. See also Figure eight to ten.
Figure 8 Basel Secutor mosaic

Fig. 10 Mosaic Villa Negrar Secutor                                    Fig. 9 Mosaic Villa Negrar Retiarius

Here you can clearly see individual structures with interruptions on a carrying belt. A fabric belt would be unsuitable for this use, so we have chosen a 1.2mm thick cowhide belt as a carrier material for our equipment reconstruction. This is closed with two buckles.

The width can be assumed in the pictures as often uniform, but in the later years of the imperial period, the belt became wider. From the finds and the depictions we have chosen a belt of 11cm width.

From the helmets from Pompeii we know that the chosen decorations told little stories or episodes [3].

Therefore we chose three motifs for Pullus, which depict his gladiatorial development and hammered them on bronze plates. After the first fight he was the newly hatched gladiator chick (fig. 11). Hence the Roman numeral one in the broken egg. After that 19 more fights followed and he became the proud cock (Pullo) with the Roman numeral twenty.
Fig. 11 Bronze plates with chick and cock

After a further 30 fights, the nemesis grip was added as a belt ornament and the minimum number of plates for this belt was reached.
Fig. 12 Plate griffin

After the motifs were worked into the bronze plates, the plates were cut to size, drilled and provisionally fixed to the belt.
Fig. 13 Riveting diagram
Fig. 14 Riveting pattern

Now a layer of yellow leather was laid over the entire belt, straps and bronze plates and glued over the entire surface. Where the bronze plates are located, the leather was cut out beforehand. Looking back, sewing would have been more authentic. Finally the bronze plates were fixed to the belt with copper rivets. The large rivets have a decorative character in addition to their mechanical function.

Fig. 15 Belt front    Fig. 16 Belt left         Fig. 17 Belt right

 

 

 

 

 

Thus another part fits into the equipment of the gladiator Pullus. The impacts on the side plates, which have been preserved in the meantime, testify, besides the extremely decorative character of this rather narrow belt, also to the not to be despised protective effect in battle.
Fig. 18 Pullus‘ equipment

Finally the overall picture with the attempt of a victory pose with raised scutum.
Fig. 19 Operational picture

Meanwhile with over 100 fights I am of course thinking about making a fourth record but it is hard to beat the sign of Nemesis in a gladiatorial context. Therefore I am happy about good ideas.

Valete your Gladiatores Berolinenses

1] Gladiator Romes blody spectacles, Konstantin Nossov, p. 101f ISBN 978-1-84603-472-5

2] Retiary overview www.gladiatorenschule-berlin.de/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/ÜbersichtRetiariusDE.pdf#page=29

3] https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Cingulum_militare1%2C_Tekija.jpg Gmihail in Wikipedia in Serbian / CC BY-SA 3.0 RS (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/rs/deed.en)

4] Gladiator Looking on death every day, Harald Meller, Valeria Sampaolo, Luigia Meliko, S. 126f ISBN: 978-3-8053-4787-7

5] all used pictures with Creative Comons licence of the Berlin Gladiator School

Pectorale of the Provocator

The reliefs of the Porta Stabia and the Thermal Museum of Rome show a clear front and rear view of the pectorale of the Prvocator. In the Temple of Augustus in Pula, on the base of a statue, there is the griffin, symbol of Nemesis and motif animal of our Pullus. Nemesis is the goddess of luck, revenge and of course gladiators.

relief thermal museum of rome

 

Porta Stabia relief

relief griffin san lorenzo

After the research, the blacksmith of the Croatian gladiators Luca agreed to put his art also into our service.

The pectorale is made of 1,3mm steel. Here is a clear deviation from the original – for reasons of care and durability. It is fastened with crossed leather straps in a metal guide on the back as seen in the porta stabia relief.

We have used a width of 270mm and a height of 250mm according to the measurement ratio of the used reliefs.

I hoped to inaugurate the Pectorale at the Gladaitorensymbosium 2020 but after Covid-19 we wait for 2021.

Pullus Provocator 2020

 

Gladius of the Retiarius

The Protoretiarius, which is depicted on a chalice from the Chrysipp workshop, wears only a net and trident. From the further development to the Retiarius known today, the gladiator is faced with the problem that he has to hold two weapons in one hand in the first part of the fight (see fig. 1 and 2). From our overview of the development of the Retiarius we know our view that the Retiarius was armed with a gladius.

fig. 1 mosaic Villa Bignor, England                               fig. 2 mosaic Villa Nenning, Germany

Since a secure grip is essential in gladiatorship, the retiarius must have had a way to wield these two weapons in one hand. One possibility would be the flattest possible Gladius silhouette
If you now look at the grip types of the different gladii or spaths, you will see that there were quite flat parries and knobs. Therefore the use of such a grip would be an explanation for the weaponlossless fighting of a retiarius.

Fig. 3 Blade shapes and grip types

fig. 4 bladehandles from museum Aalen and London

Based on the proportions in the Borghese-Mosaic (Fig. 5) and Junkelmann p.92f we have worked out the following gladius data:
1. blade length 33cm
2. handle length 16cm
3. gladius type Mainz shortened (cf. markings Fig. 3)
4. handle 2-3 yrs. with flat parry and pommel (see markings fig. 3 and fig. 4)

fig. 5 mosaic Villa Borghese, Italy

As so often, the busy bees of Fabri Armorum helped us incredibly quickly and precisely
Here are the results:

fig. 5 Handle from side

fig. 6 Gladius of the retiarius

Greeting from your Gladiatores berolinenses

Mons Secutor gladius

In search of a gladius.

After the successful completion of my twentieth fight in front of an audience I was awarded the steel licence and symbolically the Gladius of the founder of the ludus. I used this gladius first of all to maltreat my opponents, but it was simply not mine. So I immediately set out in search of my gladius.

During the research I noticed that the weapons of the gladiators were often depicted in a rather rudimentary or simplified way (fig. 1), if they could be recognised at all (fig. 2). Among the depictions that look „authentic“ to me I found a Secutor gravestone with a good depiction of the gladius (fig. 3).

fig 1 relief burdur

 

fig 2 relief burdur

The Gladius has a broad short blade and a short point. This depiction suggests a gladius of the type Pompeii. The parry seems to be oval and at the end of the grip there is a distinct widening.

fig 3 tombstone secutor

I personally like the 1st century handles with the „grip grooves“. The grip has hand width and the fingers automatically grip into the grooves, so that the gladius fits well to the hand. The grip should be appropriate for a gladiator, simple and inexpensive, i.e. made of wood. For practical reasons it would be good if the handle or blade could be replaced without having to break anything.

With these guidelines I have visited several online shops and looked what is on offer. At Outfit 4 Events I found some nice gladii and spathae. Since none of them met my exact requirements, I asked if it was possible to produce them according to my specifications. No problem at all, I was told. Delivery time approx. 10 weeks from order. So I have transmitted my ideas. The communication was unproblematic and when the Gladius arrived everything was as desired, except for one small thing. The tip was a bit longer and sharper than I wanted. Now my opponent must take the blame for this. No, joking aside, the rules of the ludus will decide if there is a need for improvement. The tang of the blade goes through the whole handle and is fixed at the end with a nice „cap nut“, so there is the possibility to exchange the handle if it calls missio earlier than the blade.

new gladius                                                                                 detail pommel

My Gladius has a blade length of 30 cm, a blade width of 44 mm, a 3 mm striking edge, an oval parry flattened at the sides, a 13 cm handle to fit the glove and a beautiful oval wooden pommel.

Greetings and kisses,
MONS